Optimizing non obvious costs April 7, 2021 Author: Oren Eini, CEO RavenDB
Read the orginal blog post

One of the “fun” aspects of running in the cloud is the fact that certain assumptions that you take for granted are broken, sometimes seriously so. Today post is about an issue a customer run into in the cloud. They were seeing some cases of high latency of operations from RavenDB. In the cloud, the usual answer is to provision more resources, but we generally recommend that only when we can show that the load is much higher than expected to be handled on the hardware.

The customer was running on a cluster with disk that were provisioned with 1,000 IOPS and 120 MB /sec, that isn’t a huge amount, but it is certainly respectable. Looking at the load, we can see fairly constant writes and the number of indexes is around 30. Looking at the disk, we can see that we are stalling there, the queue length is very high and the disk latency has a user visible impact.

All told, we would expect to see a significant amount of I/O operations as a result of that, but the fact that we hit the limits of the provisioned IOPS was worth a second look. We started pulling at the details and it became clear that there was something that we could do about it. During indexing, we create some temporary files to store the Lucene segments before we commit them to the index. Each indexing run can create between four and six such files. When we create them, we do that with the flag DeleteOnClose, this is a flag that exists on Windows, but not on Linux. On Linux, we are running on ext4 with journaling enabled, which means that each file system metadata modification requires a journal write at the file system level. Those temporary files live for a very short amount of time, however. We delete them on close, after all, and the indexing run is very short.

6 files per index times 30 indexes means 180 files. Each one of those will be created and destroyed (generating a journal event each time) and there is a constant low volume of writes. That means that there are 360 IOPS at the file system level just because of this issue.

The fix for that was two folds. First, for small files, under 128KB, we never hit the disk. We can keep them completely in memory. For larger file, we want to avoid using too much memory, so we spill them to disk, but instead of creating new files each time, we’ll reuse them between indexing run.

The end result is that we are issuing fewer I/O operations, reducing the amount of trivial IOPS we consume and can get a lot more done with the same hardware. The actual fix is fairly small and targeted, but the impact is felt across the entire system.