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Configuring index options

The indexes each RavenDB server instance uses to facilitate fast queries are powered by Lucene, the full-text search engine.

Lucene takes a Document , breaks it down into Fields , and then split all text in a Field into tokens ( Terms ) in a process called Tokenization . Those tokens are what will be stored in the index, and be later searched upon.

After a successful indexing operation, RavenDB feeds Lucene with each entity from the results as a Document , and marks every property in it as a Field . Then every property is going through the Tokenization process using an object called a "Lucene Analyzer", and then finally is stored into the index.

This process and its results can be controlled by using various field options and Analyzers, as explained below.

Configuring the analysis process

Understanding Analyzers

Lucene offers several Analyzers out-of-the-box, and new ones can be made easily. Different analyzers differ in the way they split the text stream ("tokenize"), and in the way they process those tokens post-tokenization.

For example, given this sample text:

The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dogs, 123432.

  • StandardAnalyzer, which is Lucene's default, will produce the following tokens:

    [quick] [brown] [fox] [jumped] [over] [lazy] [dog] [] [123432]

  • StopAnalyzer will work the same, but will not perform light stemming, and will only tokenize on white space:

    [quick] [brown] [fox] [jumped] [over] [lazy] [dogs] [bob] [hotmail] [com]

  • SimpleAnalyzer on the other hand will tokenize on all non-alpha characters, and will make all the tokens lowercase:

    [the] [quick] [brown] [fox] [jumped] [over] [the] [lazy] [dogs] [bob] [hotmail] [com]

  • WhitespaceAnalyzer will just tokenize on white spaces:

    [The] [quick] [brown] [fox] [jumped] [over] [the] [lazy] [dogs,] [] [123432.]

  • KeywordAnalyzer will perform no tokenization, and will consider the whole text stream as one token:

    [The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dogs, 123432.]

RavenDB's default analyzer

By default, RavenDB uses a custom analyzer called LowerCaseKeywordAnalyzer for all content. This implementation behaves like Lucene's KeywordAnalyzer, but it also perform case normalization by converting all characters to lower case.

In other words, by default RavenDB stores the entire term as a single token, in a lower case form. So given the same sample text from above, LowerCaseKeywordAnalyzer will produce a single token looking like this:

`[the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dogs, 123432.]

This default behavior allows you to perform exact searches, which is exactly what you would expect. However, this doesn't allow you to perform full-text searches. For that, another analyzer should be used.

To allow for full-text search on text fields, you can use the analyzers provided with Lucene out of the box. These are available as part of the Lucene distribution that ships with RavenDB.

For most cases, Lucene's StandardAnalyzer would be your analyzer of choice. As shown above, this analyzer is aware of e-mail and network addresses when tokenizing, normalizes case, filters out common English words, and also does some basic English stemming.

Collation analyzers

For languages other than English, or if you need a custom analysis process, you can roll your own Analyzer. It is quite simple to do, and may already be available as a contrib package for Java Lucene or Lucene.NET.

Using a non-default Analyzer

To make an entity property indexed using a specific Analyzer, all you need to do is match it with the name of the property, like so:

	new IndexDefinitionBuilder<BlogPost, BlogPost>
		Map =
			users =>
			from doc in users select new { doc.Tags, doc.Content },
		Analyzers =
                {x => x.Tags, "SimpleAnalyzer"},
                {x => x.Content, "SnowballAnalyzer"}

The Analyzer you are referencing to has to be available to the RavenDB server instance. When using analyzers that do not come with the default Lucene.NET distribution, you need to drop all the necessary DLLs into the "Analyzers" folder of the RavenDB server directory, and use their fully qualified type name (including the assembly name).

Field options

After the tokenization and analysis process is complete, the resulting tokens are stored in an index, which is now ready to be search with. As we have seen before, only fields in the final index projection could be used for searched, and the actual tokens stored for each depends on how the selected Analyzer processed the original text.

Lucene allows storing the original token text for fields, and RavenDB exposes this feature in the index definition object via Stores.

By default, tokens are saved to the index as Indexed and Analyzed but not Stored - that is: they can be searched on using a specific Analyzer (or the default one), but their original value is unavailable after indexing. Enabling field storage causes values to be available to be retrieved via IDocumentQuery<T>.SelectFields<TProjection>(...), and is done like so:

public class StoresIndex : AbstractIndexCreationTask<BlogPost, BlogPost>
	public StoresIndex()
		Map = posts => from doc in posts
							select new { doc.Tags, doc.Content };

		Stores.Add(x => x.Title, FieldStorage.Yes);

		Indexes.Add(x => x.Tags, FieldIndexing.NotAnalyzed);
		Indexes.Add(x => x.Comments, FieldIndexing.No);

The default values for each field are FieldStorage.No in Stores and FieldIndexing.Default in Indexes.

Setting FieldIndexing.No causes values to not be available in where clauses when querying (similarly to not being present in the original projection). FieldIndexing.NotAnalyzed causes whole properties to be treated as a single token and matches must be exact, similarly to using a KeywordAnalyzer on this field. The latter is useful for product Ids, for example. FieldIndexing.Analyzed allows to perform full text search operations against the field. FieldIndexing.Default will index the field as a single term, in lower case.